The hottest Swiss researchers created the world's

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Swiss researchers created the coldest electronic chip in the world. Dominikzumb ü HL, a professor at the University of Basel, and his colleagues successfully cooled the temperature of the nano electronic chip to 2.8 millikelvin, which is about minus 273.15 degrees Celsius

researchers said: "magnetic cooling is based on the principle that when the external magnetic field is gradually reduced, the system will gradually cool down, while avoiding any external heat flow." before reducing the magnetic field, the heat generated by magnetization needs to be absorbed by other ways to obtain effective magnetic cooling. This is how we successfully cool the nano electronic chip to 2.8 millikelvin, so as to achieve a record low temperature. "

Professor zumb ü HL and his colleagues combined these two cooling systems, both of which are based on magnetic cooling. They cooled all the conductive connections of the chip, and the applied force was equal to the nominal value of the weight × 10 to 150 degrees Kelvin (less than one thousandth of a degree from absolute zero). Then they applied the second cooling system directly to the chip itself, and placed a Coulomb blocking thermometer at the same time. The structure and material of the thermometer enable it to be reduced to 2.8 millikelvin by magnetic cooling

Professor zumb ü HL said, "by combining two cooling systems, we can lower the temperature of the chip below 3 millikelvin (about minus 273.15 ℃). We are optimistic that we can use the same method to reach 1 millikelvin." Scientists said, "it's quite good that we can keep the chip at ultra-low temperature for 7 hours. Scientists will have enough time to carry out many exploratory experiments, which will help to understand the physical characteristics near absolute zero."

chip, also known as microcircuit, microchip, integrated circuit (IC). It refers to the silicon chip containing integrated circuits, which is very small and often part of computers or other electronic equipment

generally refers to the carrier of integrated circuit, which is also the result of integrated circuit design, manufacturing, packaging and testing. It is usually an independent whole that can be used immediately. The words "chip" and "integrated circuit" are often used together. For example, in ordinary discussion topics, integrated circuit design and chip design mean the same thing, and chip industry, integrated circuit industry and IC industry often mean the same thing. In fact, the two words are related and different. Integrated circuit entities often exist in the form of chips, because in a narrow sense, integrated circuits emphasize the circuit itself, such as the phase-shift oscillator, which is as simple as only five components connected together. When it is still presented on the drawing, we can also call it integrated circuit. When we want to use this small integrated circuit, it must be an independent piece of material, or embedded into a larger integrated circuit, Rely on chips to play his role; Integrated circuits pay more attention to the design and layout of circuits, and chips pay more attention to the integration, production and packaging of circuits. The generalized integrated circuit, when it comes to industry (different from other industries), can also include various meanings related to chip

in a broad sense, as long as the high-performance modified plastic is an indispensable supporting material in the fields of high-end manufacturing, energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy and so on, the semiconductor chip can be called a chip, and there is not necessarily a circuit in it. Such as semiconductor light source chip; For example, mechanical chips, such as MEMS gyroscopes; Or biochips such as DNA chips. In communication and information technology, when the scope is limited to silicon integrated circuits, the intersection of chips and integrated circuits is "circuits on silicon chips". Chipsets are a series of interrelated chipsets that can be classified in different ways. They are interdependent and can play a greater role when combined, such as processors and North South Bridge chipsets in computers, and RF, baseband and and power management chipsets in computers

biochip technology is a comprehensive high-tech, which involves biology, chemistry, medicine, precision processing, optics, microelectronics, information and other fields. It is a highly interdisciplinary research project. Although the research of biochip has made great progress, the development of some related technologies such as detection technology restricts the further development of Sandvik materials technology: expert biochip technology for high-performance corrosion problem solutions. This is because with the improvement of chip integration, the amount of reactants used is reduced, and the signal generated is becoming weaker and weaker. Therefore, the requirement for high-precision detectors is imminent. In addition, micro processing technology, chip packaging and preservation are also aspects that should be paid attention to in the research and development of biochips. After nearly ten years of unremitting efforts, biochip technology has begun to mature gradually from immature, and has begun to bring impact and even revolution to many fields of life science research. For biochip, microarray chip is only one kind of detection chip, and there are many other chips with different functions that are parallel to it. One technology alone has such a great influence. For biochip technology, the great significance and far-reaching impact it can bring will be immeasurable

from sample preparation, chemical reaction to detection, the partial integration of these three parts has been realized, and the full integration has begun to take shape. By the 21st century, the sales of biochip market will reach more than 10 billion dollars, so companies and research institutions all over the world are actively conducting research, applying for patents, developing new products, and striving to enter the market as soon as possible. Britain, Canada, the Netherlands, Germany and Japan, led by the United States, have made dazzling achievements in this field. Facing this situation, China should invest a certain amount of financial, human and material resources as soon as possible, strive to occupy a place in this field, and avoid the situation that technology is almost monopolized by foreigners in many high-tech industries. Strive to have its own unique innovation and achievements in gene and protein expression chips, microchip laboratories and ultra-high throughput drug screening

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